Development of standardized antifungal susceptibility testing methods has been the focus of intensive research for the last 15 years. The development of these methods provides researchers not only with standardized methods for testing but also with an understanding of the variables that affect interlaboratory reproducibility. With this knowledge, we have now moved into the phase of i demonstrating the clinical value or lack thereof of standardized methods, ii developing modifications to these reference methods that address specific problems, and iii developing reliable commercial test kits. Clinically relevant testing is now available for selected fungi and drugs: Candida spp. Expanding the range of useful testing procedures is the current focus of research in this area. Antifungal susceptibility testing remains an area of intense interest. Susceptibility testing can be used for drug discovery and epidemiology, but this review will focus on use of antifungal susceptibility testing to predict therapeutic outcome.
Language: English Portuguese. During recent decades, antifungal susceptibility testing has become standardized and nowadays has the same role of the antibacterial susceptibility testing in microbiology laboratories. The detection of resistant strains by means of these systems has allowed the study and understanding of the molecular basis and the mechanisms of resistance of fungal species to antifungal agents. In addition, many studies on the correlation of in vitro results with the outcome of patients have been performed, reaching the conclusion that infections caused by resistant strains have worse outcome than those caused by susceptible fungal isolates. These studies have allowed the development of interpretative breakpoints for Candida spp. In summary, antifungal susceptibility tests have become essential tools to guide the treatment of fungal diseases, to know the local and global disease epidemiology, and to identify resistance to antifungals.
Received 3 July Published 8 November Volume Pages — Review by Single-blind. Editor who approved publication: Dr Anastasios Lymperopoulos. In the present study, chalcone derivatives were synthesized through cross aldol condensation reaction between 4- N, N -dimethylamino benzaldehyde and multiarm aromatic ketones. The multiarm aromatic ketones were synthesized through nucleophilic substitution reaction between 4-hydroxy acetophenone and benzyl bromides. The benzyl bromides, multiarm aromatic ketones, and corresponding chalcone derivatives were evaluated for their activities against eleven clinical pathogenic Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and three pathogenic fungi by the disk diffusion method.
|For when is anti fungal zone what||Correlation of MIC with outcome for Candida species tested against voriconazole: analysis and proposal for interpretive breakpoints. Recently, further evaluation of the interpretive breakpoints for fluconazole and Candida by expanded MIC data and clinical efficacy studies has validated antifungal susceptibility tests as a beneficial adjunct in optimizing treatment of candidiasis This is primarily due to the influence of other factors, such as the immune status of the host, pharmacokinetic properties of the antifungal drug, severity of the infection, presence of prosthetic devices and catheters, and surgical interventions.|
|Well when is anti fungal zone the purpose||Alcazar-Fuoli L, Mellado E. May, D. However, isolates with discrepant results as compared to the CLSI reference method may be observed and the issue needs to be cautiously interpreted particularly for routine susceptibility testing settings.|